3 Writing Styles – APA, Chicago & MLA

Dr. Manishika Jain in this vide explains the 3 main Writing Styles
APA, Chicago, MLA.
Citiations: Why Important?
Formatting in research papers
Standard acceptable method for citiation
Avoids plagiarism
Builds your credibility and shows that your ideas are shared by other scholars studying in the same field
Provide all of the information so that reader can find the book/article cited

Chicago (Turabian)
Used since 1906
For all subject matter: historical journals, geography, sociology, anthropology & social sciences
By University of Chicago Press
Uses Footnotes – by Superscripted numerals
Or Use In-Text Citations
Use only page number on upper right, if heading appears on top then use page number at bottom
Entire first and last name

APA Style
Origin: 1929
Social sciences: Business, criminal justice, economics, law
Medical subjects: Nursing and psychology
Create by American Psychological Association
Uses only In-text citations
Page number on upper right with title on left
Only the initials of the first and middle name of each author
Reduce bias in writing about gender, race, and other areas where discrimination is possible
Year in Focus: If the research study citing is current and recent, or an arcane example of an “earlier theory” which has been debunked

MLA Style
1st published by Modern Language Association of America in 1985.
Used in humanities & literature
Features brief parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work (Smith 126)

Writing Style Differences

ACS (American Chemical Society) – Chemistry
AIP (American Institute of Physics) – Physics
ALWD (Association of Legal Writing Directors) – Legal Studies
AMA (American Medical Association) – Medical Sciences
AMS (American Mathematical Society) – Mathematics
APSA (American Political Science Association) – Political Science, International Studies
ASA (American Sociological Association) – Sociology
AP (Associated Press) – Journalism, Public Relations
Bluebook – Legal Studies
CSE (Council of Science Editors) – Biology
Harvard Business School – Business
LSA (Linguistic Society of America) – Linguistics
Maroonbook – Legal Studies
NLM (National Library of Medicine) – Medicine

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