Chapter 9 – Class 7 – The Making Of Regional Cultures

Chapter 9 – The Making Of Regional Cultures
History Class 7th (hindi) CBSE – NCERT

Regional Identities based on food, clothes, poetry, dance, music and painting.
Cheras and the Development of Malayalam
The Chera kingdom of Mahodayapuram was established in the ninth century in modern day Kerela.
They introduced Malayalam language.
The temple theatre performed Sanskrit Epics.
Lilatilakam (fourteenth-century text) dealing with grammar and poetics, was composed in Manipravalam refers to both Sanskrit and Malayalam.

The Jagannatha Cult
Cult of Jagannatha (literally, lord of the world, a name for Vishnu) at Puri, Orissa
wooden image.
In the twelfth century, one of the most important rulers of the Ganga dynasty, Anantavarman, decided to erect a temple for Purushottama Jagannatha at Puri
Mughals, the Marathas and the English East India Company, attempted to gain control over the temple. They felt that this would make their rule acceptable to the local people

The Rajputs and Traditions of Heroism
In the nineteenth century, Rajasthan, was called Rajputana by the British.
Partly inhabited by Rajputs.
Contributing to the distinctive culture.
Brave rulers from eighth century, to present-day.
Eg. Prithviraj.
Loyalty, friendship, love, valour, anger, etc.
Practice of sati or the immolation of widows.

The Story of Kathak
A caste of story-tellers in temples of north India.
The term kathak is derived from katha in Sanskrit.
Performances with rapid footwork, elaborate costumes, and enactment of stories.
Spread in fifteenth and sixteenth centuries with bhakti movement.
The legends of Radha-Krishna – rasa lila,
Two gharanas:
one Rajasthan (Jaipur) and other Lucknow.
Present-day Punjab, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.
Recognised as one of six “classical” forms of dance in the country after independence.
Bharatanatyam (Tamil Nadu); Kathakali (Kerala);Odissi (Orissa); Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh); Manipuri (Manipur);

Miniature Painting
Small-sized paintings on cloth or paper, palm leaves or wood.
The Mughal emperors patronised skilled painters who illustrated historical accounts and poetry.
Illustrate Jaina texts, court scenes, scenes of battle or hunting, and other aspects of social life.
Deccan and Rajput courts of Rajasthan – Mewar, Jodhpur, Bundi, Kota and Kishangarh and Himachal Pradesh – Kangra.
Seventeenth century – bold and intense style of miniature painting called Basohli Paintings later evolved into Kangra Painting. eg. Bhanudatta’s Rasamanjari.
By mid- eighteenth century (cool blues and greens) Kangra Painting was inspiration for Vaishnavite traditions.
Ordinary women and men painted on pots, walls, floors, cloth.

Bengal
Fourth century Guptas rulered north Bengal.
In the seventh century, languages related to Sanskrit were in use all over Bengal.
Eighth century, Bengal became the centre of a Palas Kingdom and began to settle Brahmans in the area.
Fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, Bengal was ruled by independent Sultans. After 1586, when Akbar conquered Bengal.
Bengali developed as a regional language taking all above influence.
Persian was the language of administration.
Bengali is derived from Sanskrit and tribal languages, Persian, and European languages.
Early Bengali literature includes Sanskrit epics, the Mangalakavyas (poems, dealing with local deities) and bhakti literature such as the biographies of Chaitanyadeva, the leader of the Vaishnava bhakti movement. And Nath literature such as the songs of Maynamati and Gopichandra, stories concerning the worship of Dharma Thakur, and fairy tales, folk tales and ballads.
Sanskrit manuscripts indicate its age between the late fifteenth and mid-eighteenth centuries.
Non-sanskrit literature circulated orally and cannot be precisely dated.

Pirs and Temples
Bengal witnessed a temple-building spree from the late fifteenth century to nineteenth century.
Migration from Western Bengal to South Eastern Bengal.
Establishment of Mughal control over Bengal their capital Dhaka.
Set up mosques provided with pirs, that served as centres for religious transformation.
Temples were built by powerful individuals or groups — to both demonstrate their power and proclaim their piety. New Social groups too proclaimed their status by building temples.
Modest brick and terracotta temples by “low” social groups, Kolu (oil pressers) and Kansari (bell metal workers).
Temples got the double-roofed (dochala) or four-roofed (chauchala) structure of the thatched huts. (“Bangla dome”).
Evolution of the typical Bengali style in temple architecture.
More complex four-roofed structure, four triangular roofs placed on the four walls move up to converge on a curved line or a point. Temples were usually built on a square platform. The interior was relatively plain, but the outer walls of many temples were decorated with paintings, ornamental tiles or terracotta tablets.